Electropaedia logo

Battery and Energy Technologies

 
Spacer
End cap
Finding your Way Around
Sponsors
Free Report

Buying Batteries in China

 
End cap

Spacer

Spacer

Green cap
Woodbank does not monitor or record these emails
Green cap
Spacer
Green cap
Green cap
Spacer
Spacer
End cap
More Sponsors
 
End cap

 

Back to Top

Technology and Applications Timeline

 

Click on the dates for details or go directly to the History Page

A list in alphabetical order is available on the Hall of Fame page.

See also the timeline of the Discovery of the Elements

 

Note Some events are grouped together to make it easier to follow a theme. The dates indicate where to find the event in the text. There you will find the date when the event actually happened if it is different.


Circa 3000 B.C. Mesopotamians - (Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians) - Bronze Age - Weapons and Tools, Cuneiform Writing, Wheel and Axle, Potter's Wheel, Mathematical Numbering Systems, Calendar with Leap Years, Glass

Egyptians - Hieroglyphic Scripts, Papyrus Scrolls

2500 B.C. Egyptians, Imhotep - Soldering, Wire Drawing, Architecture, Medicine

2300 B.C. Egyptians - Stenciling

2100-1600 B.C. Chinese - Bronze Artifacts

2000 B.C. Hittites - Wrought Iron

1300 B.C. Egyptians - Wire Making, Fibreglass

1280 B.C. Moses - Ark of the Covenant

800 B.C. Greeks - Lodestone, Magnets

600 B.C. Thales - Static Electricity, Geometry, Surveying, Scientific Method

530 B.C. Pythagoras - Mathematics, Divine Proportion, Number Theory

500 B.C. Chinese - Cast Iron

460 B.C. Democritus - Atomic Theory

350 B.C. Aristotle - Rational Deduction

332 B.C. Alexander the Great - Library of Alexandria, University

300 B.C. Euclid - Geometry, Mathematical Proofs

269 B.C. Archimedes - Theory of Machines, Military Machines, Water Pump, Worm Gear, Compound Pulley, Calculation of π, Areas and Volumes, Limits

250 B.C. Mesopotamia - Baghdad Battery

240 B.C. Eratosthenes - Calculation of the Size of the Earth, Geography, Prime Numbers Sieve

220-206 B.C. Qin Dynasty - Magnetic Compass

206 B.C.-220 A.D. Han Dynasty - Petroleum Extraction

140-87 B.C. Han Dynasty, Cai Lun - Paper

27 B.C.- 5th Century A.D. The Romans - Roman Science

15 B.C. Vitruvius - De Architectura: The Ten Books on Architecture, Odometer

50 A.D. Romans - Aqueducts and Bridges

60 A.D. Hero - Steam Reaction Turbine

150 A.D. Ptolemy - Geocentric Universe, Almagest, Geographia, Map Making

200 Galen - Anatomy, Medical Research, Magnets and Medicine

400 Hypatia - Hydrometer, Astrolabe

426 St Augustine - Magnets and Miracles

619 Romans - Tidal Power

645 Xuan Zhuang - Silk Screen Printing

700-1100 Islamic Science - Rise and Fall, Scientific Revolution

776 Jabir Ibn Haiyan (Geber) - Chemistry, Experimental Methods

830 Al-Khawarizmi - Algebra, Algorithms, Trigonometry, Concept of Zero

920 Al-Razi - Chemistry, Book of Secrets

1040 Wu Ching Tsung Yao - Thermoremanent Magnetisation

1041 Pi Sheng - Printing Press

1086 Shen Kuo - Compass Navigation

1190 Neckam - Magnetic Compass

1250 St Thomas Aquinas - Rational Thought

1269 Petrus Peregrinus - Magnetic Poles

1285 Richard of Walligford - Mechanical Clock, Verge and Foliot Escapement

1368 China - Ming Dynasty, Decline of Chinese Science and Technology

1450 Gutenberg - Printing Press

1474 Republic of Venice - Patent Law

1478 Leonardo da Vinci - Flight Studies, Military Machines, Anatomy, Solar Heating

1492 Christopher Columbus - Discovery of the New World

1499 King Henry VI, John of Utynam - The First Patent

1500 to 1700 The Scientific Revolution and The Age of Reason

1514 Copernicus - Heliocentric Universe

1543 Vesalius - Human Anatomy

1551 Al-Din - Steam Impulse Turbine

1576 Brahe - Astronomical Observations

1593 Galileo, Santorio - Water/Air Thermometer

1600 Gilbert - Electric and Magnetic Forces, Experimental Method

1603 Cascariolo - Phosphorescence

1605 Bacon - Scientific Method, Five Bit Binary Code

1608 Lippershey - Telescope

1609 Kepler - Laws of Planetary Motion

1610 Galileo - Jupiter's Moons, Heliocentric Universe, Gravity, Laws of Motion, Pendulums

1614 Napier - Logarithms, Mechanical Calculator (Napier's Bones)

1620 Gunter - Logarithmic Scale Calculator

1621 Oughtred - Slide Rule

1628 Harvey - Circulation of the Blood

1629 Cabeo - Electric Repulsion

1642 Pascal - Mechanical Calculator, Hydraulic Press, Vacuum, Mathematical Theory of Probabilities

1643 Torricelli - Barometer

1644 Descartes - Cartesian Geometry, Mathematical Basis of Science

1646 Browne - Named "Electricity"

1651 Glauber - Pressure Release Valve

1654 Ferdinand II - Sealed Alcohol Thermometer

1656 Huygens - Pendulum Theory, Pendulum Clock, Distance to the Stars

1658 Ussher - Age of the Earth

1660 Towneley, Power - Gas Law
          Royal Society Founded

1661 Huygens - Manometer
          Boyle - Elements

1662 Boyle - Gas Law

1663 von Guericke - Electric Generator, Piston Vacuum Pump, Magdeburg Hemispheres

1665 Boyle - Hydrometer
          Hooke - Microsccope, Micrographia

1666 Colbert - French Academy of Sciences Founded

1668 van Leeuwenhoek - Microscopes, Microbiology

1673 Leibniz - Calculus, Binary Arithmetic, 4 Function Mechanical Calculator

1675 Boyle - Electric Force Transmission

1676 Hooke - Hooke's Law for Springs, Time Stamping

1681 Papin - Safety Valve, Pressure Cooker, Steam Engine, Power Piston

1687 Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Calculus, Laws of Motion, Gravity, Planetary Motions, Cat-flap

1698 Savery - Steam Driven Water Pump

1700 Leibniz - German Academy of Sciences Founded

1701 Jethro Tull - Seed Drill, Mechanised Farming

1705 Hauksbee - Electroluminescent Glow Discharge Lamp

1709 Abraham Darby I - Iron Making at Coalbrookdale

1707 Papin, Leibniz - Steam Driven Water Pump

1712 Newcomen - Reciprocating Atmospheric Steam Engine

1713 Réaumur - Fibreglass, Thermometer, Temperature Scale

1714 Fahrenheit - Mercury Thermometer, Temperature Scale

1725 Bouchon - Stored Program, Punched Paper Tape, Machine Automation

1728 Falcon - Punched Cards, Manufacturing Automation

1729 Gray - Electric Conduction

1733 du Fay - Positive and Negative Charges
          Kay - Flying Shuttle
         de Moivre - Bell Curve (Normal Distribution)

1738 Bernoulli - Fluid Mechanics

1740 Huntsman - Crucible Steel at Sheffield

1744 de Vaucanson - Stored Program, Punched Cards, Machine Automation

1745 van Musschenbroek, Cunaeus, von Kleist - Leyden Jar

1746 Nollet - Electric Communications
          Robins - Whirling Arm Apparatus, Aerodynamic Drag

1747 Cavendish - Electric Potential, Electric Charge, Inverse Square Law
          Watson - Earth Return

1748 Watson - Glow Discharge, Fluorescent Light
          Nollet - Electroscope
          Euler - Mathematical Constant e, Euler's Trigonometrical Formulae, Turbine Equations

1750 to 1850 The Industrial Revolution

1750 Nollet - Electrostatic Spraying
          Michell - Magnetic Induction, Inverse Square Law

1752 Dalibard - Lightning Experiments
          Franklin - Electrical Experiments
          Sulzer - Battery Tongue Test

1753 Morrison - Telegraph

1757 Adanson, Walsh - Electric Fish, Electric Shocks

1759 Aepinus - Mathematics of Electricity and Magnetism, Variable Capacitor
          Smeaton - Aerodynamic Lift Equation, Society of Civil Engineers

1761 Black - Latent Heat
          Brindley - Bridgewater canal, Harecastle Tunnel

1764 Kay, Hargreaves, Highs, Arkwright - Spinning Jenny
          Arkwright - Factory System (Textiles)

1765 Boulton - Factory System (Metalworking)
          Lunar Society of Birmingham Founded

1766 de Saussure - Electrometer
          Cavendish - Hydrogen

1767 Priestley - History of Electricity, Oxygen

1769 Watt - Steam Engine with Separate Condenser

1770 Cugnot - Self Propelled Road Vehicle, Rotary Drive, Freewheel Mechanism

1771 Arkwright - Machine Powered Factory
          Scheele - Oxygen, Chlorine, Light Sensitive Silver Salts (Basis of Photographic Process)

1774 LeSage - Electric Telegraph

1775 Volta - Perpetual Electrophorus
          Wilkinson - Precision Machine Tools
          Ketley - Building Societies

1779 Abraham Darby III - Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale
          Compton - Spinning Mule

1780 Pickard - Rotary Motion by Means of Flywheel and Crank

1782 Laplace - Integral Transform, Probability Theory

1784 Cavendish - Chemical Composition of Water
          Mesmer - Animal Magnetism
          Cort - Puddling to Make Steel

1785 Coulomb - Inverse Square Law

1786 Galvani - Animal Electricity

1787 Charles, Gay Lussac - Gas Laws
          Fitch - Steam Powered Boat

1789 Lavoisier - Conservation of Mass, Elements

1790 Jefferson - Patent Laws
          Hopkins - First US Patent

1791 Richter - Stoichiometry, Law of Definite Proportions
          Barber - Gas Turbine Engine, Water Jet Propulsion

1792 Murdoch - Coal Gas

1794 Whitney - Cotton Gin

1795 Bramah - Hydraulic Press

1797 von Humboldt - Galvanic Electricity
          Maudslay - Precision Machine Tools, Screw-Cutting Lathe, Micrometer

1798 Whitney - Interchangeable Components, Milling Machine

1799 Rumford - Equivalence of Thermal Energy and Mechanical Work, Founded the Royal Institution
          Cayley - Theory of Aeronautics, Manned Gliders, Artillery Shells, Caterpillar Tracks, Prosthetic Hand, Hot Air Engine, Automatic Brakes, Railway Signalling, Fire and Railway Safety Systems
          Lukin, Wouldhave - Self-righting Lifeboat

1800 Volta - Battery
          Nicholson, Carlisle - Electrolysis
          Herschel - Infrared Radiation

1801 Ritter - Ultra Violet Radiation
          Jacquard - Stored Program, Programmed Machine Control
          Gautherot - Rechargeable Battery

1802 Cruikshank - Electrodeposition, Electroplating
          Wollaston - Optical Polarisation, Wollaston Prism

1803 Ritter - Rechargeable Battery
          Dalton - Atomic Theory, Gas Laws

1804 Salvá - Electric Telegraph
          Trevithick - Steam Powered Road Vehicle

1805 Brugnatelli - Electroplating

1807 Young - Modulus of Elasticity, Wave Theory of Light
          Davy - Isolation of Elements by Electrolysis
          Fulton - Steam Boat
          Fourier - Heat Transfer, Fourier Transform
          Gauss - Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

1808 Berzelius - Law of Definite Proportions, Chemical Notation, Atomic Masses
          Marc Isambard Brunel - Mass Production

1809 Davy - Carbon Arc Lamp

1810

1811 Avogadro - Molecular Weights Hypothesis (Avogadro's Law)

1812 von Sömmering - Electric Telegraph
          Zamboni - High Voltage "Dry" Battery, Electric Clock

1814 Fraunhofer - Fraunhofer Lines, Light Spectrum Analysis

1805 Brugnatelli - Electroplating

1816 Ronalds - Electric Telegraph
          Wollaston - Reserve Battery
          Stirling - Stirling "Hot Air" Engine, Regenerator

1819 Dulong, Petit - Specific Heat Capacity Law
          Rogers - Steamship Atlantic Crossing

1820 Øersted - Magnetism and Electricity
          Ampère - Magnetic Forces, Electric Potential
          Biot, Savart - Magnetic Fields
          Schweigger - Galvanometer
          Arago - Electromagnet
          Hare - Spiral Wound Electrodes

1821 Seebeck - Thermoelectric Effect
          Faraday - Electric Motor

1822 Barlow - Electric Motor
          Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Railways, Iron Ships

1823 Döbereiner - Catalysis

1824 Berzelius - Silicon Isolated
          Carnot - Heat Engine Theory, Second Law of Thermodynamics

1825 Ampère - Magnetic Field Theory
          Sturgeon - Electromagnet
          Stephenson - Railways
          Marc Isambard Brunel, Lord Cochrane - Tunneling Shield, Thames Tunnel

1826 Nobili, Melloni - Astatic Galvanometer, Thermoelectric Battery
          Poggendorff - Mirror Galvanometer

1827 Ohm - Ohm's Law
          Brown - Brownian Motion

1828 Berzelius - Atomic Weights
          Green - Mathematical Analysis of Electricity and Magnetism
          Dutrochet - Osmosis
          Jedlik - Electric Motor, Commutator, Self Excited Dynamo
          Neilson - Hot Blast Furnace

1829 Nobili, Melloni - Thermopile Radiant Heat Measurement
          Becquerel - Constant Current Cell

1830 Ure - Bi-metal Thermostat
          Henry - Electromagnetic Induction

1831 Faraday - Solenoid, Induction Coil, Transformer, Dynamo, Homopolar Machine
          Henry - Electric Telegraph
          Henry - Relay

1832 Schilling - Electric Telegraph
          Pixii - Magneto, Direct Current Dynamo

1833 Faraday - Laws of Electrolysis
          Christie - Wheatstone Bridge
          Weber, Gauss - Magnetic Fields, Electric Telegraph
          Lenz - Induced Current Law
          Graham - Diffusion Law
         Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Gaz Engine
          Ericsson - Hot Air Engine, Ericsson Cycle, Screw Propeller, USS Monitor

1834 Peltier - Thermo-cooling Effect
          Clapeyron - Heat Engine Theory, Thermodynamics

1835 Gauss - Electric Field Theory, Normal Probability Distribution
          Morse - Electric Telegraph, Morse Code
          Lindsay - Electric Arc Welding, Electric Lamp

1836 Daniell - Battery, Non-Polarising Cell
          Berzelius - Catalysts
          Paris - Electric Light Installation
          Dubus-Bonnel - Woven Fibreglass
          Callan - Induction Coil, Maynooth Battery

1837 Faraday - Capacitor Theory
          Davenport - Electric Motor
          Cooke, Wheatstone - Electric Telegraph
          Ettrick, Henley - Insulated Electrical Wire
          McGauley, Page - Interrupter, Self-Acting Circuit Breaker

1838 Davidson - Switched Reluctance DC Motor, Electric Locomotive
          Steinheil - Earth(Ground) Return Single Wire Signalling

1839 Steinheil - Electric Clock
          Grove - Fuel Cell
          Faraday - Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generator
          Jacobi - Power Transfer Theorem, Load Matching, Electric Boat, Electroplating, Electroforming
          Becquerel - Photovoltaic Effect
          Simon - Polystyrene

1840 Joule - Electric Heating (Joule's) Law, First Law of Thermodynamics
          Elkingtons - Electroplating
          Newall - Cable Making
          Airy - Feedback, Closed Loop Systems
          Armstrong - Hydro-Electric Generator

1841 Bunsen - Carbon Zinc Cell, Spectroscopy
          Bain - Electric Clock, Earth Battery

1842 Doppler - Doppler Effect

1843 Bain - Image Scanning, Fax Machine, Punched Paper Tape, Telegraph Improvements
          Ada Lovelace, Babbage - Computer Programming, Stored Program, Binary Numbers, Analytical Engine
          Wheatstone - Rheostat
          Hancock, Goodyear - Vulcanisation of Rubber
          du Bois Reymond - Electrophysiology, Nerve Impulses

1845 Faraday - Magneto-Optic Effect
          Kirchhoff - Network Theory, Speed of Light, Spectroscopy, Composition of the Sun and Stars

1846 Smithson - Smithsonian Institution
          Faraday - Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism
          Semyonov - Oil Wells, Petroleum Industry

1847 Brunel - Atmospheric Railway

1848 Kelvin - Absolute Temperature

1849 Fizeau - Speed of Light, Red Shift
          Bourdon - Pressure Gauge

1850 Clausius - Mechanical Theory of Heat
          Mirand - Trembling Electric Bell

1851 Kelvin - Second Law of Thermodynamics
          Ruhmkorff - High Voltage Induction Coil
          Foucault - Foucault's Pedulum, Rotation of the Earth, Gyroscopes
          Singer - Sewing Machine, Hire Purchase Agreements

1852 Frankland - Chemical Bonds, Valency
          Joule, Thomson - Gas Laws, Vapour Compression Refrigeration
          Channing, Farmer - Automatic Fire Alarm System, Diplex Telegraphy

1853 Pope - Electric Burglar Alarm
          Gintl - Duplex Telegraphy
          Rankine - Potential Energy
          Kelvin - RLC Circuit Theory

1854 Bourseul - Electrical Transmission of Sound
          Geissler - Vacuum Tubes, Fluorescent Light
          Boole - Boolean Logic
          Tyndall - Light Pipe, Fibre Optics
          Stenhouse - Gas Mask
          Barsanti, Matteucci - Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

1855 Parkes - Plastic, Celluloid
          Bessemer - Bessemer Converter, Steel Making

1856 Kelvin - Dynamic Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, Strain Gauge

1857 Kelvin - MagnetoResistance
          Wheatstone - Punched Paper Tape

1858 Field, Whitehouse, Kelvin - Transatlantic Telegraph Cable, Mirror Galvanometer
          Plücker, Hittorf - Cathode Rays, Fluorescent Lights
          Couper, Kekulé - Organic Chemistry, Linking Carbon Atoms
          Holmes - Electric Burglar Alarm
          Cannizzaro - Atomic and Molecular Weights

1859 Rankine - Thermodynamic Cycles
          Carré - Gas Absorption Refrigeration
          Darwin - The Origin of Species, Theory of Evolution

1860 Lenoir - Internal Combustion Engine, Spark Ignition, Lenoir Cycle
          Reithmann - Four Stroke Engine
          Planté - Lead Acid Rechargeable Battery
          Mouchout - Solar Powered Motor
          Maxwell - Primary Colours, Colour Photography

1861 Reis - Telephone
          Meucci - Telephone
          Beau de Rochas - Four Stroke Engine

1862 Otto - Spark Ignition Four Stroke Engine, Otto Cycle

1863 Alkali Works Act - Environmental Legislation
          Davis - Pilot Plants, Safety Practices
          Jedlik - Multiplying Capacitor Battery (High Voltage Generator)

1864 Maxwell - Electromagnetic Waves
          Elkington - Electrolytic Refining

1865 Clausius - Entropy
          ITU - International Telecommunications Union Established
          Siemens, Martin - Open Hearth Steel Production

1866 Varley, Siemens, Wheatstone, Hjorth, Jedlik - Dynamo, Electromagnetic Armature

1867 Siemens - Reversibility of Dynamo
          Kelvin - Water Powered Electrostatic Generator
          Scholes, Glidden, Soule - Typewriter

1868 Leclanché - Zinc Carbon Wet Cell
          Maxwell - Feedback Control Systems
          Farcot - Servomechanisms

1869 Hittorf - Ion Migration, Transport Number
          Meyer, Mendeleyef - Periodic Table of Elements
          Berges - Hydroelectric Power
          Tyndall - Explanation of Blue Sky

1870 Hyatt - Plastic, Celluloid
          Player - Fibreglass

1870's Boltzmann - Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamic Entropy

1871 Weber - Atomic Structure, Current Flow
          Steiner - Electric Shock Treatment
          Tyndall - Fireman's Respirator, Gas Mask

1872 Baumann - PVC, Polyvinyl Chloride
          Loomis - Radio
          Clark - Standard Cell
          Stearns - Duplex Telegraphy

1872 Brayton - Continuous Combustion Engine, Brayton (Thermodynamic) Cycle

1873 Maxwell - Electromagnetic Radiation Theory, Maxwell's Equations
          Gramme, Fontaine - Commutators, DC Machines, Electrical Power Transmission
          Davidson - Electric Vehicle
          May, Smith - Photoconductivity
          van der Waals - Gas Laws, Intermolecular Forces

1874 Clamond - Thermo-electric Battery
          Edison - Quadruplex Telegraph
          Baudot - Digital Encoding, Multiplexer
          Braun - Crystal Rectifier
          Stoney - Electron
          Salomons - Electric Car

1875 Rowland - Current and Charge Flow

1876 Bell, Gray - Telephone
          Thomas - "Basic" Bessemer Process

1877 Hughes, Edison, Berliner, Hunnings, Blake - Carbon Microphone
          Adams, Day - Photo-electric Effect
          Siemens - Loudspeaker

1878 Gramme, Fontaine - Electric Alternator
          Gibbs - Chemical Thermodynamics, Free Energy Concept, Vector Analysis
          Niaudet - Battery Industry Growth, 100 Battery Types, Recycling
          Redmond - Television
          de Paiva - Electric Telescope
          Langley - Bolometer
          Swan - Incandescent Electric Light
          Schuckert - Electrical Power Generation by Steam

1879 Edison, Swan and Others - Incandescent Electric Light
          Hall - Magnetic Field Strength Sensors
          Crookes - Cathode Ray Tube, Radiometer
          Siemens Halske - Electric Railway
          Stefan - Black Body Radiation
          Hughes - Induction Balance, Metal Detector, Radio Waves, Electromagnetic Radiation

1880 Curie - Piezo-electricity
          Fauré - Lead Acid Battery Formation, Pasted Plates
          Hammesfahr - Fibreglass Cloth

1881 Thiebaut - Leclanché Cell Improvements
          Burr, Scott - Flashlight (Torch)
          Touvé - Electric Car
          International Electric Congress - Electrical Units, Volt, Ohm, Ampere
          Taylor - Time and Motion Study, Scientific Management
          Smith, Phelps, Edison, Woods - Induction Telegraph, Mobile Communications

1882 d'Arsonval - Moving Coil Galvanometer
          Tesla - Rotating Field Principle, 2 Phase Induction Motor
          Lalande, Chaperon - Rechargeable Alkaline Cells
          Wimshurst - Electrostatic Generator
          Ayrton, Perry - Electric Tricycle, Electric Lights
          Wheeler, Seely - Domestic Electrical Appliances
          Edison - DC Electricity Generating Station
          Hammer - Thermionic Emission
          Hopkinson - Three Phase Electricity Generation and Distribution

1883 Hopkinson - Synchronous Motors
          Edison - Electric Fuse
          Fritts - Photo-voltaic Module
          FitzGerald - Radio Waves

1884 Heaviside - Coaxial Cable, Vector Calculus, Distortionless Transmission Lines, Heaviside-Kennelly Layer
          Renard - Zinc Chlorine Flow Battery
          Arrhenius - Galvanic Conductivity in Electrolytes, Ion Dissociation, Chemical Reaction Rates, Greenhouse Effect
          Le Chatelier - Chemical Equilibrium
          Nipkow - Television System, Image Raster Scanning

1885 Goldstein - Canal Rays
          Ferraris - Induction Motor Rotating Magnetic Field
          Benardos, Olszewski - Electric Arc Welder
          Bláthy, Déri, Zipernowsky - High Voltage AC Distribution System, Transformer, AC WattHour Meter
          Benz - Automobile
          Parsons - Steam Turbines

1886 Stanley - Transformer
          Gassner - Carbon Zinc Dry Cell
          Hall, Héroult - Electrolytic Extraction of Aluminium
          Akroyd-Stuart - Compression Ignition Engine

1887 Kelvin - Electrostatic Voltmeter
          Arrhenius - Chemical Reaction Rates
          Thomson - Electric Resistance Welding
          Tesla - Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators, AC Distribution System
          Ferranti - AC Distribution System, AC Electricity Generating Station, Induction Heating
          Waller - Electrocardiogram
          Boys - Fibreglass
          Hertz - Photoelectric Effect

1888 Hertz - Radio Waves
          Hallwachs - Photoelectric Effect
          Peral, Zede, Drzewiecki - Electric Submarines
          Reinitzer - Liquid Crystal Effect
          Strowger - Automatic Telephone Exchange
          Hayes - Telephone Exchange Central Battery Power

1889 Thomson - Recording Wattmeter
          von Dobrovolski - Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
          Nernst - Galvanic Cell Theory, Enthalpy, Third Law of Thermodynamics
          Westinghouse - Hydroelectric AC Generating and Distribution System

1890 Ewing - Hysteresis
          Tesla - High Frequency Multi-pole Rotary Generator

1891 Steinmetz - Hysteresis Law, AC Circuit Analysis, Phasors
          Ward Leonard - Variable Speed Control
          Wenström - Three Phase Power Systems
          Hertz, Lenard - Cathode Rays
          Branly - Coherer (Radio Wave Detector)
          Varley - Lightning Bridge
          Lilienthal - Hang Gliders, Theories of Flight

1892 Weston - Standard Cell, Electric Instruments
          Stubblefield - Ground Battery, Radio
          Lorentz - Electrodynamics, Electromagnetic Fields, Electromagnetic Forces

1893 Elster, Geitel - Photocell
          Westinghouse - End of the Current Wars
          Chanute - Progress in Flying Machines
          Diesel - Compression Ignition Engine, Diesel Cycle

1894 Lodge, Muirhead - Radio Signal Transmission

1895 Röntgen - X-ray Effect
          Curie - Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Curie Point
          Popov - Radio Waves, Antennas

1896 Marconi - Radio Telegraphy
          Jacques - Carbon Battery
          Becquerel - Radioactivity
          Misell - Flashlight (Torch), D Cells
          Dowsing - Automobile Self-Starter, Integrated Starter Generator
          Langley - Aeronautical Theory

1897 Thomson - Electron
          Braun - Oscilloscope
          Darraq - Regenerative Braking
          Tsiolkovsky - Theory of Rocket Motion, Multi-Stage Rockets, Regenerative Cooling
          Peukert - Available Battery Capacity

1898 Poulsen - Magnetic Recording and Playback Apparatus
          Wien - Proton
          Lodge - Radio Tuning
          Curie - Radioactivity, Radium

1899 Duell - Patents
          Rutherford, Soddy - Alpha Rays, Beta Rays
          Villard - Gamma Rays
          Jungner - Nickel Cadmium Rechargeable Cells
          Jénatzy - Electric Vehicle, Land Speed Record
          Porsche - Hybrid Electric Vehicle
          Pupin - Inductive Loading Coils

1900 Edison - Nickel Iron Battery
          Planck - Quantum Theory
          Drude - Electrical Conduction
          Pieper - Hybrid Electric Vehicle
          Holland - Dual Propulsion Submarine

1901 Michaelowski - Nickel Zinc Battery

1902 Hewitt - Mercury Arc Rectifier
          USA - Electricity Market Penetration

1903 Einthoven - Electrocardiograph
          Wright Brothers - Powered flight
          Soddy, Rutherford - Radioactivity, Spontaneous Atomic Disintegration
          Hanson - Flexible Printed Circuits
          Krieger - Hybrid Electric Vehicle
          Tswett - Chromatography
          Murray - Teleprinter

1904 Fleming - Diode Rectifier, Potentiometer
          Hülsmeyer - Radar
          Hubbell - Mains Plug and Socket
          Conti - Geothermal Power Plant

1905 Einstein - Quantum Theory, Avogadro's Number, Brownian Motion, Speed of Light, E = mc2
          Tafel - Battery Theory
          Piper - Hybrid Electric Vehicle
          Riker, Ford - Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
          Langévin - Magnetism, Magnetic Properties

1906 Fessenden - Broadcast Radio, Amplitude Modulation (AM)
          Alexanderson - High Frequency Multi-pole Rotary Generator
          Pickard, Dunwoody - Crystal Detector, Cat's Whisker

1907 Baekeland - Thermosetting Plastic
          de Forest - Triode
          Round - Light Emitting Diode (LED)
          Weiss - Magnetic Domains, Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism
          Simon - Silk Screen Printing
          Héroult - Electric Arc Furnace

1908 Voith - Pumped Storage
          Brandenberger - Cellophane

1909 Sørensen - pH Acidity/Alkalinity Measure
          Beautey - Hermetically Sealed Wet Battery

1910 Millikan - Electron Charge
          Wulf, Hess - Cosmic Rays, Cosmic Radiatiion
          Coolidge - Tungsten Filament Light Bulb
          Claude - Neon Lights

1911 Onnes, Holst - Superconductivity
          Rutherford - Atomic Structure
          Campbell Swinton - Electronic Television

1912 Thomson, Soddy - Isotopes, Mass Spectromete
          Haynes, Brierley, Strauss, Maurer - Stainless Steel
          Kettering - Automobile Electric Starter
          Bragg - X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Crystallography
          von Laue - X-ray Theory
          Wilson - Cloud Chamber
          Armstrong - Regenerative Radio Receiver, Positive Feedback
          Sarnoff - Monitoring Titanic SOS Signals
          Leavitt - Cepheid Star Period-Luminosity Relation, Standard Candles

1913 Bohr - Quantum Mechanics, Atomic Structure
          Moseley - Atomic Number, Periodic Table
          Berry, Littlefield, Bassist - Printed Circuits
          Ford - Moving Conveyor Line, Paced Assembly Line

1914 Millikan - Planck's Constant Determination
          Slipher - Red Shifted Galaxies

1915 Benedicks - Germanium Crystal Rectifier
          Willard - Automotive SLI Batteries
          Fery - Air Depolarising, Zinc-Air Battery
          Colpitts - Push-Pull Amplifier
          Hartley, Colpitts - Variable Frequency Oscillators
          Carson - Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier Modulation, Frequency Division Multiplexing
          Shapley - Stellar Distance Estimation, Cosmic Dimensions

1916 Lewis - Chemical Bonding, Ionic Bonding
          Sommerfeld - Atomic Structure, Quantum States
          Northrup - High Frequency Induction Heating
          Czochralski - Single Crystal Growth

1917 Campbell, Wagner - Passive Electric Wave Filters
          Rutherford - Splits Atom, Proton

1918 Armstrong, Schottky - Superheterodyne Radio Tuner
          Schoop - Printed Circuits

1919 Eccles, Jordan - Flip Flop
          Eguchi - Electrets
          Schottky - Tetrode Valve
          Nicholson - Crystal Oscillator

1920 KDKA - First Commercial Radio Broadcasts
          Aston - Nuclear Mass Defect, Binding Energy
          Eddington - Sun's Energy Source
          Hull - Magnetron

1921 UK - Electricity Market Penetration
          Cady - Crystal Controlled Oscillator
          Midgley - Anti-knock Fuel (Tetraethyl Lead), Refrigerants (Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs))

1920's Diesel Electric Locomotives, Electric Drives

1922 BBC - Public Radio Broadcasting
          Losev - Light Emitting Diode (LED), Solid State Amplifier, Negative Resistance Amplifier
          Minorsky - Feedback Control Systems, PID (3 Term) Controller
          Staudinger, Simon - Theory of Polymers, Polystyrene

1923 Marconi Company - Hearing Aid
          Dodge, Romig - Sampling Inspection Tables, AOQL
          Brønsted, Lowry, Lewis - Acids and Bases
          Pierce - "Pierce" Crystal Controlled Oscillator

1924 Berger - Encephalograph
          de Broglie - Wave Particle Duality
          Rice, Kellogg - Moving Coil Loudspeaker
          Schottky, Gerlach - Ribbon Microphone
          Appleton - Ionosphere, Appleton Layer, Radar

1925 Maxfield, Harrison - Electrical Sound Recording
          Bush - Analogue Computer
          Pauli - Exclusion Principle, Electron Spin
          Heisenberg - Quantum Theory, Matrix Mechanics
          Ducas - Printed Circuits

1926 Parolini, Edison - Printed Circuits
          Semon - PVC, Plasticisers
          Eckert, Ziegler - Injection Moulding Machine
          Schrödinger - Quantum Wave Mechanics, Wave Equation
          Born - Quantum State Probability
          Lilienfeld - Field Effect Transistor
          Loomis - Tuxedo Park Laboratory, MIT Radiation Laboratory
          Ridenour - MIT Radiation Lab Series Publications

1927 Heisenberg - Uncertainty Principle
          Thomson, Davisson - Wave Nature of the Electron
          Hund - Quantum Tunneling
          USA - Battery Costs
          Chauvin Arnoux - Multimeter
          Black - Feedback Control Theory, Distortion Control
          Seymour - Flexible Printed Circuits
          Farnsworth - All Electronic Television System
          Marrison - Quartz Clock, Crystal Controlled Oscillator
          Haldane - Heat Pump

1928 Dirac - Electron Magnetic Spin Properties, Anti-particles, Quantum Electrodynamics, QED, Positron
          Hartley - Signal Information Content, Information Transmission Rates
          Nyquist - Communications, Sampling Theory
          Johnson - Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise)
          Potocnik - Geostationary Satellites
          Raman - Raman Scattering

1929 Zworykin - Television Picture Tube
          Hubble - Big Bang, Expanding Universe, Hubble's Law

1930 Butler, Volmer - Battery Kinetic Electrochemistry
          Gusseff, Lazarenko - Electro-chemical Machining, Electro-discharge Machining
          Lilienfeld - Electrolytic Capacitors
          Whittle - Jet Engine

1931 Carothers - Neoprene, Nylon
          Fischar - Metal Detector
          Drumm - Traction Battery
          de Bellescise - Phase Locked Loop (PLL), Radio Tuning Circuits, Automatic Frequency Control (AFC)
          Blumlein - Stereo Sound

1932 Knoll, Ruska - Transmission Electron Microscope
          Bacon - Alkaline Fuel Cell
          Cockcroft, Walton - Proton Accelerator, Split the Atom, E = mc2 Verification
          Lawrence - Cyclotron Particle Accelerator
          Chadwick - Isolates the Neutron
          Szilard - Chain Reaction, Critical Mass, Atom Bomb
          Anderson - Positron, Elementary Particles
          Tamm - Phonons
          Heise, Schumacher - Zinc Air Battery
          Schlecht, Ackermann - Sintered Pole Plates
          Nyquist - Feedback Control Theory, Stability Control
          Kleist, Slayter - Fibreglass

1933 Dassler - Recombinant Batteries
          Meissner, Ochsenfeld - Superconductor Magnetic Properties
          First Injection Moulded Polystyrene Products
          Gibson, Fawcett - Polyethylene
          Armstrong- Frequency Modulation (FM)
          Franz - Flexible Printed Circuits

1934 Sonneberg - Gelled Cell Lead Acid Batteries
          Chauvin Arnoux - Current Measuring Clamp

1935 Watson-Watt - Radar
          Heil - Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET), Klystron, Air Motion Transformer
          Varian - Klystron (1937)

1930's Ampoule Batteries

1936 Ellis - Polyester Resin

1937 Shannon - Information Theory, Digital Technology, Logical Operations
          Reeves - Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Digital Circuits
          Dippy - Radio Navigation
          Sargrove - Printed Circuits

1938 Bode - Control System Stability
          Gross - Walkie-Talkie, Mobile Radio
          Meitner, Hahn, Strassmann - Nuclear Fission, Splitting the Atom
          Plunkett - PTFE
          UK - Electricity Market Penetration
          Sola - Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT)
          Schottky - Schottky Diode, Semiconductor Theory
          Zuse - Programmable Digital Computer, High Level Language

1939 I.G. Farbenindustrie - Epoxy Resin, Composites
          Bethe - Explanation of Sun's Source of Energy
          UK - Electricity Market Penetration

1940 Randall, Boot - Cavity Magnetron
          Frisch, Peierls - Atomic Bomb
          Tizard - Technology Transfer UK-US
          Loomis, Pierce, Dippy - LORAN

1941 André - Silver Oxide Zinc Battery
          Ohl - P-N Junction, Semiconductors, Silicon Solar Cell
          Adams - Water Activated Battery
          Ransburg - Electrostatic Paint Spraying
          Centralab - Thick Film Circuits

1942 Fermi - Nuclear Chain Reaction
          Coover - Superglue
          Hanford, Holmes - Polyurethane
          Hedy Lamarr, Antheil - Frequency Hopping Secure Communications, Spread Spectrum, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
          Kompfner - Travelling Wave Tube (TWT)

1943 Eisler - Printed Circuit Board

1944 German Army, Schmidt, Gosslau, Lüsser - V-1 Cruise Missile
          German Luftwaffe, Dornberger, von Braun - V-2 Ballistic Missile (Rocket)
          Ruben, Mallory - Mercuric Oxide Batteries
          Brenner, Riddel, Pessel - Electroless Plating

1945 Clarke - Geostationary Communications Satellites
          Ragazzini, Philbrick - Operational Amplifier, Analogue Circuits
          Bush - Memex (Hypertext)
          McMillan, Veksler - Synchrotron

1946 Bloch, Purcell - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
          Spencer - Microwave Oven
          Philips - Ceramic Magnets

1947 Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley - Transistor
          Young, Ring - Cellular Communications
          Neumann - Battery Seals
          Piezoelectric Ceramic Gramophone Needle
          Gabor - Holography
          Parsons - Numerically Controlled Machine Tools

1948 Bell Labs - Transistor Announcement
          Mataré, Welker - Transistron, The French Transistor
          Teal, Little - Single Crystal Growth
          Teal, Sparks - Grown Junction Transistor
          Teal, Buehler - Silicon Crystal Growth, Silicon Diodes
          Shannon - Mathematical Theory of Communications, Information Entropy, Sampling Theory, Channel Capacity Tradeoffs Motor, Magnetic Levitation, Maglev Trains
          Durrer - Basic Oxygen Steel Making

1949 Woodland, Silver - Bar Code System
          Forrester - Magnetic Core Random Access Memory (RAM)
          Danko, Abramson - Dip Soldering

1950 Shockley - Electrons and Holes
          Shockley - Four Layer Diode, Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
          Nishizawa - PIN Diode
          Oerlikon - Flywheel Battery
          Dreyer - LCD Polarisers
          Deming - Total Quality Management, TQM
          Martin - Gas Chromatography

1951 Wilkes, Wheeler & Gill - Assembly Language Programming
          Hopper - Compiler
          Saby - Alloy Junction Transistor
          Thornton - Transistor Jet Etching Technique, Surface Barrier Transistor
          Ford - Automatic Assembly, Production Automation
          Ohmart - Nuclear Batteries, Direct Energy Conversion
          Nuclear Power Plants
          Sakharov, Tamm - Tokamak, Thermonuclear Fusion

1952 Lip - Electric Watch
          Transistor Production
          Pfann - Zone Refining
          Theuerer - Float Zone Refining
          Zener - Zener Diode
          Fuller - Semiconductor Diffusion Doping
          Welker - Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)
          Dummer - Integrated Circuit
          Oatley - Scanning Electron Microscope
          Eccles, Hodgkin, Huxley - Nerve Impulse Transmission

1953 Microtone, Maico, Unex, Radioear - Transistor Hearing Aid with Button Cell
          Mataré, Welker - Transistor Radio
          Kay - Digital Voltmeter (DVM)
          Fox - Polycarbonate

1954 Borg-Warner - ABS Polymers
          McIntire - Styrofoam
          Shockley, Ohl - Ion Implantation
          Lee - Diffused Base Germanium Mesa Transistor
          Chapin, Fuller, Pearson - Silicon Solar Cell
          Tanenbaum - Diffused Base Silicon Mesa Transistor
          Adcock, Teal - Silicon Transistor
          Koch - Transistor Radio
          Backus - Fortran
          Teal - Silicon Transistors
          Devol, Engleberger - Industrial Robots

1955 Grubb - Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
          Johnson - Computer Hard Disk
          USS Nautilus - Nuclear Powered Submarine
          Polley - Wireless (Optical) TV Remote Control
          Adler - Ultrasonic TV Remote Control
          Wang - Magnetic Core Computer Memory, Random Access Memory (RAM)
          Kapany - Fibre Optics
          Uhlir, Bakanowski - Varactor Diode or Varicap
          Shockley - Four Layer Diode, Shockley Diode
          Lawson - Conditions for Nuclear Fusion

1956 Bell Labs, British Post Office - TransAtlantic Telephone Cable (TAT 1)
          Hall, Gutzwiller - Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR), Thyristor

1957 Korolev - Sputnik 1, Artificial Earth Satellite, Soviet Space Programme
          Esaki - Tunnel Diode, Negative Resistance, Electron Tunneling
          Bardeen, Cooper, Schreiffer - BCS Theory, Superconductivity
          Kouwenhoven - Defibrillator
          Hamilton Watch - Electric Watches
          Jache - Gel VRLA battery
          Hanratty - Numerical Control, CAD/CAM
          Frosch, Derrick - Silicon Dioxide Masking
          Andrus, Bond - Photolithography
          Bemer - Computer Time-Sharing

1958 Niedrach - PEM Fuel Cells, Gemini Spacecraft
          Hoerni - Transistors, Planar Process
          Lehovec - Integrated Circuit, Dielectric Isolation
          Kilby, Noyce - Integrated Circuits
          Schawlow, Townes, Gould - Laser
          Van Allen - Radiation Belt, Explorer 1 Satellite

1959 Urry - Alkaline Primary Battery
          Ihrig - Fuel Cell Powered Vehicle
          Feynman - Nanotechnology

1960 Maiman - Laser
          Kahng, Atalla - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
          Sah - MOSFET
          Hofstein, Heiman - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Integrated Circuit, MOS IC
          Loor, Christensen, Kleimack, Theurer, Ross - Epitaxial Deposition
          Cho, Arthur - Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
          Greatbatch - Heart Pacemaker, Lithium Primary Battery
          Sutherland - Sketchpad, CAD
          Getting, Parkinson, Easton - Global Positioning System (GPS), Satellite Navigation System

1960's Zinc Air Button Cells
          Bacon - Alkaline Fuel Cells, Apollo Spacecraft

1961 US Department of Energy - Nuclear Batteries
          Riley - Cordless Power Tools
          UK - Electricity Market Penetration
          Noyce - Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL)
          Thomson - Multiple Input Emitter Transistor, Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
          Baker - Diode Transistor Logic (DTL)
          Buie, Longo - Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
          Aroot - Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)
          Wanlass, Sah - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)
          Lin - Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS)
          Kalman - Predictive Control Systems

1962 Philbrick - Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps)
          Widlar, Talbert - Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps), Linear Circuits
          Holonyak - Light Emitting Diode
          Josephson - Superconducting Materials, Magnetic Field Sensor
          Carson - Silent Spring, Environmental Protection
          Pierce, Early, Kompfner, O'Neill - Telstar 1, Communications Satellite
          Charyk - COMSAT formed
          Licklider - "Intergalactic Computer Network" (Internet Concept)

1963 Cormack, Hounsfield - Computerised Axial Tomography, CAT Scanning
          Gunn - Gunn Diode
          Rosen, Williams, Hudspeth, Mendel - Syncom Geosynchronous Satellite, Geostationary Satellite

1964 Baran, Davies - Packet Switching, Internet
          Weitbrecht, Marsters, Saks - Teletypewriter (TTY), Acoustic Coupler Modem
          Geulia - Super Flywheel Battery
          Henry-Baudot - Printed Circuit (Pancake) Motor
          Bitzer, Slottow, Wilson - Flat Panel Plasma Display
          Higgs - Higgs Field, Higgs Boson

1965 Zadeh - Fuzzy Logic
          Russell - Optical Disk System, Compact Disk, CD ROM
          Cooley, Tukey - Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
          Rosen - Intelsat 1 (Early Bird), Communications Satellite
          Hilton, Korolev - Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO), Molniya Satellite, Nationwide Satellite Television Broadcasts
          Moore - Moore's Law, Integrated Circuits
          Johnston, De Loach, Cohen - IMPATT Diode
          Nelson - Hypertext

1966 Longo - Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), TTL Memory
          Dennard - Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)
          Weber, Kummer - Sodium Sulphur Battery
          CODATA - Physical Constants
          Kao, Hockham - Fibre Optic Communications
          de Gaulle - Rance Tidal Energy Scheme

1967 Gates - Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) Battery
          Beccu - Nickel Metal Hydride (NIMH) Battery
          Kahng, Sze - Non-Volatile Memory, Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM)
          Thornley, Hatzakis - Electron Beam Lithography
          Walker, Koford, Jones - Micromosaic, Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's)
          Engelbart - Computer Mouse, Graphical User Interface (GUI), Hypertext, Video Conferencing

1968 Carter - Carterfone Judgement, Telecoms Deregulation
          Heilmeier - Liquid Crystal Display
          Knuth - The Art of Programming
          Kummer, Weber - AMTEC Direct Energy Conversion
          Rosen - De-spun Satellite Antenna

1969 Draper, Hall - Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC), Moon Landing
          Fergason - Twisted Nematic Field Effect, LCD
          Smith, Boyle - Charge Coupled Device
          Nakamura - Quartz Wristwatch
          Taylor, Roberts - ARPANet, Linked Computers

1970 Gray - LCD Materials
          Maurer, Keck, Schultz, Zimar - Low Loss Fibre Optic Cable
          Regitz, Karp, Hoff, Rowe, Abbott, Vadasz, Reed - Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)
          Chua - Static Random Access Memory (DRAM)
          Frohman - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), OTP EPROM
          Joel - Cellular Phone Handoff System
          Abramson - ALOHAnet, Local Area Networks (LANs)

1971 Fagin, Hoff, Mazor - Single Chip Microprocessor
          Shugart - Computer Floppy Disk System
          Engel, Frenkiel, Gladden, Parelman - Cellular Communications System
          Sampson - Gamma Electric Cell, Nuclear Battery
          Tomlinson - Internet Email

1972 Sodium Sulphur Battery Tested
          Richie, Thompson - C Programming Language
          Sinclair - Pocket Calculator
          Chauvin Arnoux - Digital Multimeter

1973 Cooper - Portable Cell Phone, Cellular Base Station
          Cerf, Kahn - TCP/IP Internet Protocol
          Metcalfe, Boggs - Ethernet
          Projection Printing (Photolithography)

1974 Isley, Endres, Johnston, Marble, Senechal - 3 Axis Satellite Stabilisation, RF Inteferometer, Star Tracker, ATS-6 Experimental Direct TV Broadcast Satellite (DBS)
          Werbos - Neural Networks
          McGinniss, Corry, Proctor - Organic Semiconductors

1970s VRLA Battery Development

1975 Dunlop, Giner, van Ommering, Stockel - Nickel Hydrogen Battery
          Roberts - Personal Computer
          Gates, Allen - BASIC Interpreter, Microsoft, MS-DOS

1976 Jobs, Wozniak - Apple Computer
          Ungerboek - Forward Error Correction, Trellis Code Modulation
          Diffie, Hellman - Shared Key Encryption
          Ellis, Cocks, Williamson - Public Key Encryption
          Rivest, Shamir, Adleman - Public Key Encryption

1977 AT&T and Bell Labs - Cellular Phone System
          Heeger, MacDiarmid, Shirakawa - Conducting Polymers
          Damadian - Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI Scanning
          Birkner, Chua - Programmable Logic Device (PLD)
          Hayes, Heatherington - PC Modem

1978 Christensen, Suess - Bulletin Board System (BBS)
          Jennings - FidoNet
          E.N. Kraftwerk - Compressed Air Energy Storage
          Cooper, Littauer - Metal-Air Batteries, Aluminium-Air Batteries
          Step and Repeat Photolithography
          Breedlove, Wiggins, Frantz - Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Speak and Spell

1979 Goodenough - Lithium Ion Rechargeable Cell
          Bricklin - Spreadsheet

1980 UK Atomic Energy Commission - Zebra Battery
          AGM Lead Acid Battery
          Baliga - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
          Mead, Conway - Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits, (VLSI)
          Ford Aerospace - Commercal Direct to Home Television, Direct Broadcast Satellite TV (DBS)

1981 Binnig, Rohrer - Scanning Tunneling Microscope
          Drexler - Nanotechnology
          MacCready - Photovoltaic Powered Airplane

1982 Solar One, Thermal Power Plant
          Petersen - MEMS, NEMS, Silicon Machining, Micro-Electromechanical Components

1983 Jobs - Graphical User Interface, (GUI)
          Hall - 3D Printing, Stereo Lithography, Rapid Prototyping

1984 Masuoka - Flash Memory, Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)
          Freeman - Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

1985 Curl, Kroto, Smalley - Buckminsterfullerenes
          Skil - Cordless Power Tool

1980s Sealed VRLA Batteries Commercialised

1986 Ovshinsky - Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Developments
          Binnig, Rohrer - Atomic Force Microscope
          Hitachi - Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
          Bednorz, Müller - High Temperature Superconductors
          Smith - Six Sigma Quality
          Viterbi, Jacobs, Gilhousen - Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Cellular Systems

1988 SCE - 40MWH Lead Acid Load Levelling Battery
          Fan, Tai, Muller - Micro-Scale Electrostatic Motor, Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS)
          Fert, Grünberg GMR Giant MagnetoResistance
          Chiariglione - Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG)
          Lechleider, Cioffi - Broadband Communications, ADSL

1989 Berners-Lee - World Wide Web (WWW), HTML, HTTP, URL, Browser
          Pons, Fleischmann - Cold Nuclear Fusion
          Brown - Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery
          Regenesys - Flow Battery
          Bates - Thin Film Battery
          Boeing - Stacked Semiconductor Photovoltaic Cell
          Commercial Exploitation of the Internet, Email Services

1990 Emtage - Internet Search Engine
          Sony - Lithium Secondary Cells Introduction
          Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Commercialisation

1990's New Market Demands

1991 Iijima - Carbon Nanotubes, Buckytubes
          Grätzel - Photoelectrochemical Cell
          Zimmermann - PGP Public Key Encryption

1992 Kordesch - Rechargeable Alkaline Manganese Battery

1993 Cooper - Zinc Air Batteries, Mechanical Charging

1994 Bellcore - Lithium Polymer Cells
          PowerNet - 42 Volt Automotive Battery Standard

1995 Pouch Cell
          Duracell, Intel - Smart Battery, SMBus
          Energizer - On-Cell Fuel Gauge or Battery Tester
          Bayliss - Clockwork Battery

1996 BMW - Flywheel Energy Storage Accident
          Patterson - Power Cells
          Poehler, Searson - All Plastic Battery
          Brauschweig University - Solar Powered Aeroplane

1997 Hayes, Hills - Wireless LANs, Wi-Fi
          Photovoltaic Modules Production

1998 NGK - 48MWH Sodium Sulphur Load Levelling Battery
          CODATA - Readjusts Physical Constants

2000 Mills - Hydrino Hydride Battery
          Tripathy - Flexible Polymer Solar Panels

2000's Market Trends

2001 Smalley - Nanowires

2002 Nanomaterials
          ORNL - Thin Film Batteries

2003 Teeters, Korzhova, Fisher - Nanobattery
          Zettl - Nano-Scale Electrostatic Motor, Nano-Electromechanical Systems(NEMS)
          University of San Diego - "Smart Dust", Nano Robots, Nano Batteries
          Regenesys - Cancelled
          GVEA - 40 Megawatt Battery
          Battery Sales Volumes
          Partanen - Rechargeable Aluminium Air Battery

2004 Toshiba - Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
          Intel - Itanium 2 Processor

2005 Ki Bang Lee - Urine Battery
          Satoh - Organic Radical Battery
          Armstrong - Biofuel Cell
          van Hoof - Thermo-electric Generator Using Body Heat

2006 Kassakian, Schindall, Signorelli - Enhanced Double Layer Capacitors, Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

2007 Jobs, Ive - Smartphone Internet Capable Phone
         Hatazawa, Kano - Sugar Battery (Biofuel Cell)

2008 Johnson - JTEC Battery (Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Conversion) System
          CERN, Evans - Large Hadron Collider

2011 Hung,Hsu, Lin - Data Storage on DNA

2012 Church, Kosuri DNA Data Storage Device
          CERN - Higgs Boson Confirmed

2013 Battery Futures???


 

 

 

 

 

 

Print This Page || Home || FAQ || Site Map || Legal || Privacy Promise || Contacts

 
 
Woodbank Communications Ltd, South Crescent Road, Chester, CH4 7AU, (United Kingdom)
Copyright © Woodbank Communications Ltd 2005

Top